The three Cs: Developing teachers’ digital & edtech skills

Written by: Dr Fiona Aubrey-Smith | Published:
Image: Adobe Stock

When we seek to develop teachers’ digital skills, we too often focus only on cognisance and fail to develop both competence and confidence. Dr Fiona Aubrey-Smith advises

It will come as no surprise to readers that a global survey of teachers from across 92 countries reported recently that 56 per cent felt they do not have the skills needed to make digital learning a success (OUP, 2021).

One teacher spoke for many in the survey when they said: “I know there are many super digital resources available to support positive practices, but I still feel like I’m fumbling in the dark.”

We have seen the challenges that this presents in the many and varied responses to pandemic-induced lockdowns and remote schooling. But this is a much bigger issue. It is fundamentally about social justice and facilitating meaningful equality for all children.

If as teachers we are not able to provide meaningful digital engagement within teaching and learning then are we – perhaps inadvertently – perpetuating or even amplifying the digital divide?

As the OUP report states: “If the digital divide is left unaddressed, the gap between the under-connected and the hyper-digitalised will widen, aggravating existing inequalities.”

As a teacher this will be on your radar already. The question you will be asking is what can we do to more effectively tackle this issue within all the existing constraints and pressures we are facing? Here follows a few discussion points to help you reflect on these issues with your team.

Access is only one part of the problem

The causes of the digital divide are only partly about access. Our digital priorities, decision-making and habits may also be widening inequalities.

In a study across 13 countries, Light and Pierson (2013) found that once a minimal standard of infrastructure was in place the presence of the technology itself made insignificant difference to frequency and nature of use within teaching.

That minimal standard of infrastructure was below what the majority of UK schools have (BESA, 2018) and data from the Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) shows us that even in schools with a comprehensive IT infrastructure, there can often be very low levels of meaningful digital engagement.

In other words, the causes of the digital divide and inequalities are about much more than just access to devices, software and connectivity. Instinctively we all know that. So what can we do about this – particularly in light of the OUP finding that a majority of teachers recognise their skills are creating a barrier to successful learning experiences?

First, we need to move on from thinking about developing teachers’ digital skills in a constructivist way. When we talk about digital skills, we need to instead recognise several interlinked aspects that are features of a more sociocultural approach (Aubrey-Smith, 2021). Let me introduce you to the “three Cs”:

  • Cognisance: What we are aware of and understand.
  • Competence: What we are skilled in doing in practice.
  • Confidence: How much we feel capable of doing.

If we reflect on the training and support that we put in place for teachers relating to digital technologies, most of the emphasis tends to be on raising awareness about what to use and how to use it.

Teachers are often then encouraged to implement ideas, reflect and improve – with competence and confidence assumed to be by-products of frequent use. We tend not to explicitly look at ways to build confidence.

I believe that these three Cs are the three main ingredients of building digital skills, and they could make a real difference to closing the digital divide.

Building Cognisance (what we are aware of and understand)

Recognise that teachers are not just professionals using digital tools to achieve intended goals, but also human beings living in a digital world. We are all surrounded by (and immersed in) digital influences which affect how we think about digital technology.

For example, digital profiles and identities, home heating and lighting, personal finance, online ordering and delivery, mapping routes, counting steps, rating products. Digital devices and processes surround us all the time. Some we love, some we find frustrating. Some we are indifferent to or don’t even notice. But exposure to technology in our wider lives influences our behaviours, our actions, our thoughts and ideas, and that translates into our classroom beliefs and practices.

  • Action: Engage staff in thinking about what digital devices and processes they engage with (or avoid). Move their thinking on from the actions that these encourage to think about what behaviours and relationships they create.
  • Key question: How do those digital interactions affect the decisions we make and what we choose to prioritise?
  • Intended outcome: Help teachers see the ways in which digital technologies affect our everyday behaviours and to start to consider how those behaviours can enhance learning (e.g. discussion about customer ratings and reviews when online shopping can help us to think about how we interpret and become discerning about Google search results).

Building Competence (what we are skilled in doing in practice)

There are lots of free sources of support to help us learn how to use different devices, software and online systems, not least the DfE’s EdTech Demonstrator Hubs. These sources and are absolutely superb. But we are also left with a challenge: How do we build competence in teachers who are more reluctant?

I recently interviewed a number of classroom teachers as part of a study looking at how they spoke about and used digital technologies. One teacher – let’s call them Sam – held very strong views about digital technologies. They spoke about the significant problems caused within their school as a result of children using social media. As a result of these negative experiences (note that none of those experiences were within lessons themselves), Sam had formed strong views about the negative aspects of digital technologies. Consequently, Sam talked about their explicit intention to design their lessons without any intention of students using technology.

When I observed Sam teaching, the children were engaged in a writing task in which they were describing somewhere they had visited. A student approached the teacher and explained that they had difficulty remembering a location and asked if they could look it up on Street View to refresh their memory.

Sam paused and then gave consent. The child got a device from the laptop trolley, looked at what they needed, shut the device and completed their writing. The student later told me that they didn’t normally use technology in this lesson, but they knew about Street View because of a geography lesson, and that is what had given them the idea. There are three interesting things about this.

  • The teacher did not want to use technology in their lessons because they saw it through a significantly negative lens. But they allowed it to be used for a specific purpose – and it met that purpose. This facilitated the child doing something that they would not have otherwise been able to do.
  • The technology idea and the skills had been acquired elsewhere; the teacher in this lesson did not have to know the device nor the software, shining a light on the importance of collective efficacy and thinking about a whole-school approach rather than every teacher needing to be highly digitally skilled.
  • At no point was the focus on the technology. Instead the focus remained on the writing task and the tech was just a tool to help them to do that particular task.

The pedagogy of the classroom is what made the difference. This teacher may have been highly resistant to using digital technology, but they listened to the child, valued their opinion, and welcomed their solution. A teacher with a digital mindset is not necessarily a teacher who is a skilled digital technologies user.

Perhaps this example is one to think about for our more reluctant or less confident colleagues – does the teacher themselves really need to know how to use the tech? Or is it instead about the pedagogy of their classroom and about collective efficacy – working together across your team, department, or school?

  • Action: Take a sample cohort and identify what digital tools they have been taught about at home and school so far – seeking out input from all the teachers who have worked with them, not just their tutors/classroom teachers, and not just through ICT or computing lessons.
  • Key question: For colleagues who are less confident with digital technologies, what opportunities do they have to trust children to use these digital tools independently in their lessons to complement other areas of learning?
  • Intended outcome: For all staff to become aware about what digital experiences children will be building throughout the school day – with other staff, in other classrooms, or in other activities. Importantly they should identify opportunities for utilising these experiences in lessons and activities elsewhere.

Building Confidence (how much we feel capable of doing)

Being confident comes largely by doing something and perceiving there to be a positive feedback loop. This positive feedback can be internalised (e.g. we recognise that we have achieved our own goals or intentions), or it can be seen externally (e.g. praise from others, positive data, being offered opportunities to share expertise). As teachers, we tend to be quite self-critical – focusing on next-steps or things that didn’t go to plan. But we need to be mindful that this can interfere with levels of confidence and inadvertently constrain perceptions of competence.

So we must make sure that we plan for building confidence at the same time as planning for any form of training or support when building digital skills. This might be via the senior leadership team providing targeted praise for staff trying out new ideas. Or five-minute “idea-sharing” at the start/end of staff meetings. Try setting teachers up in trios where they each informally share successes in small groups. Which teachers could you encourage to share their successes beyond the school (e.g. by writing about them in Headteacher Update!)?

  • Dr Fiona Aubrey-Smith supports schools and trusts with professional learning, education research and strategic planning. She is the founder of One Life Learning, an associate lecturer at the Open University, a founding fellow of the Chartered College of Teaching, and sits on the board of a number of multi-academy and charitable trusts. Read her previous articles for Headteacher Update via and follow her @FionaAS

Further information & resources

This material is protected by MA Education Limited copyright.
See Terms and Conditions.


Please view our Terms and Conditions before leaving a comment.

Change the CAPTCHA codeSpeak the CAPTCHA code
Sign up Headteacher update Bulletin
About Us

Headteacher Update is a magazine, website, podcast and regular ebulletin dedicated to the primary school leadership team. We tackle a wide range of leadership issues, offering best practice, case studies and in-depth information, advice and guidance. Headteacher Update magazine is distributed free to approximately 20,000 primary school headteachers.

Learn more about Headteacher update


Register to receive regular updates on primary education news delivered free to your inbox.